Schools, factories and residential buildings all often rely on concrete blocks as the bones of a masonry structure. In the first case, the net area, and corresponding section properties, will be larger than those published for non-ribbed units, although the effect of this increase is typically neglected in structural calculations. As per availability of masonry materials and units, masonry is divided in following types. In concrete masonry it is common to lay the units with mortar only on the face shells (face shell bedding). Glazed clay masonry units should meet the requirements of ASTM C126 (Standard Specification for Ceramic Glazed Structural Clay Facing Tile, Facing Brick, and Solid Masonry Units). B. Mortars for new construction are typically Types N, S, or M. For repairs to existing buildings, some other types such as Type O, or even softer mortars, may be required to replicate the original mortar properties. It is also known as a concrete masonry unit (CMU). Structural masonry walls are typically constructed using concrete masonry. Since water penetration through the exterior wythe of masonry is to be expected, the reliance on a single wythe of masonry as the exterior wall system is typically not recommended. The necessity to make building envelopes blast-resistant has forced consideration of reinforced masonry façade design options with respect to water integrity and thermal performance. (25 mm). Concrete masonry walls are typically reinforced with joint reinforcement for shrinkage control. Vertical reinforcement that is installed within the cells of the concrete masonry is generally grouted solid. This has good bond qualities and good resistance to water penetration. Mortar is typically composed of cement, lime and sand, although lime mortars can also be composed in which no cement is used. Standard Specification for Loadbearing Concrete Masonry Units, ASTM C 90-00. (See Figure 3 for examples). County Stone® Masonry Units t(hin Veneers) ... chimney, reinforced masonry, and acid-resistant mortars. Types of Masonry Cement & Mortar CEMEX’s Masonry Cements are produced in Type N Masonry Cement, Type S Masonry Cement and Type M Masonry Cement strength levels for use in preparation of ASTM Specification C-270 Type N, M or Type S Masonry Mortar, respectively without any further additions. In this fashion, the wall acts similar to a reinforced concrete element. The masonry absorbs heat and will radiate the heat to the surrounding components of the wall system. Types of Masonry Veneer masonry. There are four main types of mortar, which are described below in order of decreasing strength. Ribbed concrete masonry units (often called fluted units) typically have 4, 6, or 8 vertical ribs which align to form continuous vertical elements in the finished wall. These units are much more resistant to freeze-thaw cycling. This may require different bond patterns, depending on the configuration of the scores or ribs. See Appendices for climate-specific guidance regarding building enclosure design. These units are manufactured by mixing two different concrete colors into the same unit mold. However, the admixture must also be mixed into the mortar in order to achieve proper bond. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000. If structural masonry walls are to serve as the exterior walls, a second wythe of masonry is typically recommended. If single wythe exterior walls are to be installed, a barrier should be provided on the exterior surface, such as a fluid-applied, breathable masonry coating or over-cladding (EIFS, metal panels, stucco and similar) to prevent water penetration into the masonry. Since these units are typically larger than brick units, the construction time required for laying the units is typically less than that for brick. The “no-slump” or “low-slump” material is placed into molds, vibrated and compacte… After two hours, the bond of fresh unused mortar to new units is significantly reduced. Where concrete unit masonry (block) back up construction is used, extend flashings back through brick facing, turn up a minimum of 8 inches (200 mm) and bed into mortar joints of concrete units. In addition, because of its modular nature, different concrete masonry units can be combined within the same wall to achieve variations in texture, pattern, and color. For this reason, the structural design should assume the actual width of slump units is 1 in. Ground face concrete masonry units are polished after manufacture to achieve a smooth finish which reveals the natural aggregate colors. Ground face units are often scored to achieve a scale other than the conventional 8 16 in. The ribs are molded into the unit using a special mold. molded from clays, cut from stones, poured with concrete, each requires different processes. Full bedding of concrete masonry units is typically only performed where a portion of the cells will be filled with grout. The Properties of Clay Masonry Units / 6 The Properties of Clay Masonry Units / 7 This manual discusses the properties of clay masonry units including strength, durability, size, tolerances and ability to absorb water. What Types and Sizes of Concrete Masonry Units are Available? bricks, stone, conrete. In design, the thermal performance characteristics of the masonry are typically based primarily on the insulation placed in the wall cavity or within the backup wall. This joint should be designed to accommodate the vertical expansion of the masonry, as well as structural deflections of the support. The service life of the masonry can be 100 years or more, depending on the detailing and maintenance. Because of the mass, masonry wall systems can provide better sound insulation than lighter wall systems such as metal panels. The goal of 'Whole Building' Design is to create a successful high-performance building by applying an integrated design and team approach to the project during the planning and programming phases. The type of unit depends on the required dimensional tolerances. Professionals do masonry projects and the unit works for a variety of purposes. Innovative Solutions for the Built Environment The term “architectural concrete masonry units” typically is used to describe units displaying any one of several surface finishes that affects the texture of the unit, allowing the structural wall and finished surface to be installed in a single step. Walls utilizing a variety of split face units are shown in Figure 1. Several different types of masonry units are commonly used. © 2020 NATIONAL CONCRETE MASONRY ASSOCIATION. Water penetration can also occur, although typically to a lesser degree, due to absorption through the units and mortar. In the second case, where the rib projection is included in the overall unit thickness, the designer should be aware that the actual bearing area, section modulus, and moment of inertia are less than those published for non-ribbed units. Vertical support for the masonry veneer is typically provided at each floor line. This effect is accomplished by using a unit mold with the desired offsets. Masonry can be defined as the construction of building units bonded together with mortar. The final unit color varies with the amount and type of pigment used, cement color, aggregate color, and the amount of water used in the mix (a wetter mix will generally produce lighter and brighter colors). They can provide the structural frame of a building and they can also serve as a strong backup system for many types of veneer systems. These movements, if not accommodated in the design of the masonry elements, can cause cracking, spalling, and displacements in the masonry. Because coarse aggregate is also fractured and exposed in this process, aggregate selection can alter the final appearance. ASTM C90 prescribes minimum faceshell thickness requirements for all loadbearing concrete masonry units, but also contains a variance for split face units where up to 10% of a split faceshell can be less than the minimum specified thickness, but not less than ¾ (19 mm). Common flashing materials are stainless steel, copper, and lead-coated copper. Masonry units can also be different sizes and shapes to accommodate specific project needs. how do they differ from one another? Both white and gray cements are available. Both clay and concrete masonry also undergo cyclic thermal movements. Types of Masonry Wall The cores provide continuous vertical voids that are often reinforced. There are different mortar types depending on the required strength. The fire resistive characteristics are based on the thickness of the masonry. Concrete masonry units are typically made in forms to the desired shape and then pressure-cured in the manufacturing plant. The glazed surface is waterproof, resistant to staining and graffiti, highly impact resistant, as well as being resistant to many chemicals and bacteria. The standard for clay masonry units is ASTM C216 (Standard Specification for Facing Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale). Type S—Typically used in structural masonry applications. Other masonry unit types include cast stone and calcium silicate units. The movement joints must also accommodate these movements. The masonry units can be oriented in different positions to create different patterns on the exterior wall. Depending on the size and spacing of the reinforcement, the spacing of control joints will vary. Some units are available with the same treatment or pattern on both faces, to serve as both exterior and interior finish wall material, increasing both the economic and aesthetic advantages. The finished look of the ground surface can be altered by changing aggregate type and proportions. Veneer Masonry. This can greatly increase the resistance of the masonry wall to flexural loads and bending. Masonry walls can be of several different types: Water penetration through exterior masonry elements exposed to rain should be anticipated. For a brick masonry veneer, provisions must be made at each of the vertical supports to accommodate vertical expansion of masonry. Most building codes do not allow the weight of the masonry to be supported be wood framing, due to the strength loss of the wood member when exposed to moisture. In this standard, and in building specifications, clay units are categorized by grade (NW, MW or SW) and type (FBA, FBS and FBX). 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